Douglas Downing, Ph.D.
School of Business and Economics
Seattle Pacific University
This book is for Lori.
Deepest thanks to Michael Covington, Jeffrey
Clark, and Robert Downing for their special help.
? Copyright 2009 by Barron’s Educational Series, Inc.
Prior editions ? copyright 1995, 1987.
All rights reserved.
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List of Symbols ix
Mathematics Terms 1
Algebra Summary 381
Geometry Summary 382
Trigonometry Summary 384
Brief Table of Integrals 388
Mathematics consists of rigorous abstract reasoning.
At first, it can be intimidating; but learning about math
can help you appreciate its great practical usefulness and
even its beauty—both for the visual appeal of geometric
forms and the concise elegance of symbolic formulas
expressing complicated ideas.